Vue.nextTick()异步更新方法解析

Vue 在更新 DOM 时是异步执行的。只要侦听到数据变化,Vue 将开启一个队列,并缓冲在同一事件循环中发生的所有数据变更。如果同一个 watcher 被多次触发,只会被推入到队列中一次。这种在缓冲时去除重复数据对于避免不必要的计算和 DOM 操作是非常重要的。然后,在下一个的事件循环“tick”中,Vue 刷新队列并执行实际 (已去重的) 工作。Vue 在内部对异步队列尝试使用原生的 Promise.thenMutationObserversetImmediate,如果执行环境不支持,则会采用 setTimeout(fn, 0) 代替。

当你设置 vm.someData = 'new value',该组件不会立即重新渲染。当刷新队列时,组件会在下一个事件循环“tick”中更新。多数情况我们不需要关心这个过程,但是如果你想基于更新后的 DOM 状态来做点什么,这就可能会有些棘手。虽然 Vue.js 通常鼓励开发人员使用“数据驱动”的方式思考,避免直接接触 DOM,但是有时我们必须要这么做。为了在数据变化之后等待 Vue 完成更新 DOM,可以在数据变化之后立即使用 Vue.nextTick(callback)。这样回调函数将在 DOM 更新完成后被调用。例如:

<div id="example">{{message}}</div>

var vm = new Vue({
  el: '#example',
  data: {
    message: '123'
  }
})
vm.message = 'new message' // 更改数据
vm.$el.textContent === 'new message' // false
Vue.nextTick(function () {
  vm.$el.textContent === 'new message' // true
})

在组件内则使用 vm.$nextTick() 实例方法,回调函数中的 this 将自动绑定到当前的 Vue 实例上:

Vue.component('example', {
  template: '<span>{{ message }}</span>',
  data: function () {
    return {
      message: '未更新'
    }
  },
  methods: {
    updateMessage: function () {
      this.message = '已更新'
      console.log(this.$el.textContent) // => '未更新'
      this.$nextTick(function () {
        console.log(this.$el.textContent) // => '已更新'
      })
    }
  }
})

Vue 2.1.0 起新增:如果没有提供回调且在支持 Promise 的环境中,则返回一个 Promise。请注意 Vue 不自带 Promise 的 polyfill,所以如果你的目标浏览器不原生支持 Promise,你得自己提供 polyfill。

所以如果你不想通过回调的方式使用Vue.nextTick(),你可以使用新的 ES2016 async/await 语法完成相同的事情:

methods: {
  updateMessage: async function () {
    this.message = '已更新'
    console.log(this.$el.textContent) // => '未更新'
    await this.$nextTick()
    console.log(this.$el.textContent) // => '已更新'
  }
}

nextTick源码解析

Vue.nextTick()方法的源码存在于Vue版本库的 /src/core/util/next-tick.js 文件里,为方便理解阅读,我们使用编译后的源代码:

 var isUsingMicroTask = false;

  var callbacks = [];
  var pending = false;

  function flushCallbacks () {
    pending = false;
    var copies = callbacks.slice(0);
    callbacks.length = 0;
    for (var i = 0; i < copies.length; i++) {
      copies[i]();
    }
  }

  // Here we have async deferring wrappers using microtasks.
  // In 2.5 we used (macro) tasks (in combination with microtasks).
  // However, it has subtle problems when state is changed right before repaint
  // (e.g. #6813, out-in transitions).
  // Also, using (macro) tasks in event handler would cause some weird behaviors
  // that cannot be circumvented (e.g. #7109, #7153, #7546, #7834, #8109).
  // So we now use microtasks everywhere, again.
  // A major drawback of this tradeoff is that there are some scenarios
  // where microtasks have too high a priority and fire in between supposedly
  // sequential events (e.g. #4521, #6690, which have workarounds)
  // or even between bubbling of the same event (#6566).
  var timerFunc;

  // The nextTick behavior leverages the microtask queue, which can be accessed
  // via either native Promise.then or MutationObserver.
  // MutationObserver has wider support, however it is seriously bugged in
  // UIWebView in iOS >= 9.3.3 when triggered in touch event handlers. It
  // completely stops working after triggering a few times... so, if native
  // Promise is available, we will use it:
  /* istanbul ignore next, $flow-disable-line */
  if (typeof Promise !== 'undefined' && isNative(Promise)) {
    var p = Promise.resolve();
    timerFunc = function () {
      p.then(flushCallbacks);
      // In problematic UIWebViews, Promise.then doesn't completely break, but
      // it can get stuck in a weird state where callbacks are pushed into the
      // microtask queue but the queue isn't being flushed, until the browser
      // needs to do some other work, e.g. handle a timer. Therefore we can
      // "force" the microtask queue to be flushed by adding an empty timer.
      if (isIOS) { setTimeout(noop); }
    };
    isUsingMicroTask = true;
  } else if (!isIE && typeof MutationObserver !== 'undefined' && (
    isNative(MutationObserver) ||
    // PhantomJS and iOS 7.x
    MutationObserver.toString() === '[object MutationObserverConstructor]'
  )) {
    // Use MutationObserver where native Promise is not available,
    // e.g. PhantomJS, iOS7, Android 4.4
    // (#6466 MutationObserver is unreliable in IE11)
    var counter = 1;
    var observer = new MutationObserver(flushCallbacks);
    var textNode = document.createTextNode(String(counter));
    observer.observe(textNode, {
      characterData: true
    });
    timerFunc = function () {
      counter = (counter + 1) % 2;
      textNode.data = String(counter);
    };
    isUsingMicroTask = true;
  } else if (typeof setImmediate !== 'undefined' && isNative(setImmediate)) {
    // Fallback to setImmediate.
    // Techinically it leverages the (macro) task queue,
    // but it is still a better choice than setTimeout.
    timerFunc = function () {
      setImmediate(flushCallbacks);
    };
  } else {
    // Fallback to setTimeout.
    timerFunc = function () {
      setTimeout(flushCallbacks, 0);
    };
  }

  function nextTick (cb, ctx) {
    var _resolve;
    callbacks.push(function () {
      if (cb) {
        try {
          cb.call(ctx);
        } catch (e) {
          handleError(e, ctx, 'nextTick');
        }
      } else if (_resolve) {
        _resolve(ctx);
      }
    });
    if (!pending) {
      pending = true;
      timerFunc();
    }
    // $flow-disable-line
    if (!cb && typeof Promise !== 'undefined') {
      return new Promise(function (resolve) {
        _resolve = resolve;
      })
    }
  }

callbacks

用来存储所有需要执行的回调函数

callbacks.push(function () {
  if (cb) {
    try {
      cb.call(ctx);
    } catch (e) {
      handleError(e, ctx, 'nextTick');
     }
  } else if (_resolve) {
    _resolve(ctx);
  }
});

pending

用来标志是否正在执行回调函数,如果当前回调队列正在执行,则不再去执行。

if (!pending) {
  pending = true
  timerFunc()
}

flushCallbacks

刷新回调队列,执行回调并将回调队列里的回调清空,改函数将作为Promise.then(fn)、MutationObserver(fn)、 setImmediate(fn)以及setTimeout(fn, 0)的回调执行。

function flushCallbacks () {
  pending = false
  const copies = callbacks.slice(0)
  callbacks.length = 0
  for (let i = 0; i < copies.length; i++) {
    copies[i]()
  }
}

timerFunc

用来触发执行回调函数,timerFunc是上回调函数flushCallbacks的执行体,该函数起到延迟执行的作用

注:

  • Promise.then(fn)MutationObserver(fn)为Microtask。
  • setImmediate(fn)setTimeout(fn, 0)为Macrotask。

参考

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